The unprecedented hung parliament after Saturday’s divisive polls saw the rise of the the Malay-centric Perikatan Nasional, or National Alliance, led by former Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin.
It stunned many Malaysians who had hoped for stability and unity after political turmoil that has seen three Prime Ministers since 2018 polls.
Muhyiddin’s alliance was an underdog that enjoyed an unexpected surge of votes with 73 out of 222 parliamentary seats. Its hard-line ally is the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, the biggest winner with a haul of 49 seats — more than double what it won in 2018.
Known as PAS, it touts Sharia, rules three states and is now the single largest party. Its rise has stoked fears of greater Islamisation in the country.
Opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim’s reformist multiethnic alliance topped the race with 82 federal seats, but fell far short of the 112 needed for a majority.
In negotiations on Sunday, Muhyiddin’s coalition edged closer to a victory after securing the backing of political parties in two states on Borneo island that won a combined 32 federal seats. He still needs a nod from another key player, the United Malays National Organisation, to muster a majority.
The arrangement, if confirmed by the king, means that Muhyiddin will return as Prime Minister..
The once powerful alliance led by UMNO, which ruled Malaysia since independence from Britain until corruption scandals brought it down in 2018, is expected to return to the government as a junior partner.
UMNO was the biggest loser with only 30 seats in its worst-ever performance as many Malays opted for Muhyiddin’s bloc, which has touted itself as a “caring, clean and stable” alternative.
“This election had reinforced identity politics. Given that no party has outright majority, the newly formed coalition government will need to unite the nation,” said Amir Fareed Rahim, director of strategy at public affairs at political risk consultancy KRA Group.
Many rural Malays, who form two-thirds of Malaysia’s 33 million people — which includes large minorities of ethnic Chinese and Indians — fear they may lose their rights with greater pluralism under Anwar’s alliance. This, together with corruption in UMNO, has benefited Muhyiddin’s bloc.
Among other key election losers was two-time former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, who at 97 is leading a separate Malay movement. He suffered a shocking defeat to the National Alliance.
Anwar and Muhyiddin, both 75, claimed earlier they had enough support each to secure a majority.
Anwar told a news conference that he had obtained support in writing from lawmakers for a simple majority. He said he will submit it to King Sultan Abdullah Sultan Ahmad Shah, who will have the final say.
The king’s role is largely ceremonial in Malaysia, but he appoints the person he believes has majority support in Parliament as Prime Minister.
“We have obtained the majority … majority means more than 111,” Anwar said.
The palace said in a statement that Sultan Abdullah has asked political chiefs to submit their choice for Prime Minister and for the alliance that will be formed for a majority by Monday.
The monarch said his decision will be final as he urged Malaysians to accept the outcome to ensure a stable government.
Muhyiddin took power in March 2020, defecting from Anwar’s alliance and joining hands with the UMNO-led coalition in a move that triggered the government’s collapse. The partnership was beset by infighting and he resigned after 17 months.
UMNO leader Ahmad Zahid Hamidi said in a statement that his alliance is willing to set aside differences to ensure that a stable government can be formed.
Zahid, who is fighting dozens of graft charges, faces pressure to resign after UMNO’s second drubbing at the polls.